Note for:   Kotian Rus' Kumans Kypchak,   (1160) -          Index
Individual note:   Kipchaks = Nomadic Turkic people, known in Russian as Polovtsi


Note for:   Yaroslav Pankratij Rus' Chergnigov 7E Svyatoslavich,   (1065) - 1129         Index
Individual note:   TSCHERNIGOW


Note for:   Ieremia Jeremiasz Jeremi Mohyla Movila,    -          Index
Individual note:   Ieremia Movila (Jeremi Mohyla in Polish) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between August 1595 and May 1600, and again between September 1600 and July 10, 1606.

A boyar of the Movilesti family, Ieremia was placed on the throne in Iasi by Polish Kanclerz (Chancellor) Jan Zamoyski after the ousting of Stefan Razvan. Zamoyski's intervention had been prompted by Razvan's acceptance of Imperial tutelage over Moldavia, after having received backing from Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory and Emperor Rudolf II. The potential conflict with the country's Ottoman overlord was defused after the Poles negotiated an agreement with Sinan Pasha, although Moldavia was invaded by the Khan of Crimea and Ottoman vassal Gazi II Giray. Poland and the Turks signed the Treaty of Cecora after the defeat of Tatar troops in October, with the Porte agreeing to Ieremia's rule. Moldavia became a vassal of both countries, still owing tribute to the Ottomans. Stefan Razvan tried to return on the throne, but he was faced with the ruthless resistance of Zamoyski and Movila, being captured and impaled.

Ieremia's rule faced a more formidable foe in Wallachian Prince and Imperial vassal Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul), who, after having crushed Andrew Báthory's armies in Transylvania and installed himself Prince in Alba Iulia, turned on Moldavia.

Michael managed to conquer virtually all of the country (except for Polish-occupied Khotyn) and sent his troops to fight the Commonwealth presence in Pokuttya. The tied quickly turned, with hetmans Stanislaw Zólkiewski and Jan Karol Chodkiewicz obtaining crucial victories in Moldavia itself and taking the fighting into Wallachia (see Battle of the Teleajan River), briefly expanding Polish rule to the main section of the Danube and placing Ieremia on back on his throne, with his brother Simion the new Prince in Bucharest. In the meanwhile, Michael was assassinated at Câmpia Turzii in by his Imperial ally Giorgio Basta, with Transylvania becoming an Imperial fiefdom.

With the start of the Polish-Swedish War, Poland had to retreat from Wallachia. Simion was deposed by the Ottomans, and replaced with Radu Serban in 1601; Poland managed to keep control of Moldavia.

During his rule, Ieremia rebuilt the Sucevita Monastery.

Ieremia's mother was Maria (d. between 1614 and 1616), bastard daughter of Petru Rares. He was married to the Hungarian lady Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz (d. in Istanbul cca. 1617), whose influence was instrumental in a rise in Roman Catholic propaganda in early 17th century Moldavia.

His sons were all successive Moldavian rulers, while two of his daughters were married into Szlachta family of the Potoccy: Anna Mohyla (1579-1667) to Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki in 1658 or 1661, and Maria (d. December 10, 1638) to Stefan Potocki in 1606.


Note for:   Piotr IV Petru Pierre Raresz,    -          Index
Individual note:   prince de Moldavie de 1527 à 1538 et de 1541 à 1546.

Fils illégitime de Étienne III le Grand (Stefan cel Mare) et de Maria de Harlau, il nait en 1487. Prince le 20 janvier 1527, il cherche à rétablir de bonnes relations avec la Pologne.

Il lance des expéditions dans le pays des Sicules, et tente de s'emparer de Brasov en 1529. Il s'empare de la Pocutie en 1530, déclenchant la riposte des armées polonaises en 1531, et une contre-riposte victorieuse en 1532.

Il prend parti dans la querelle entre Ludovico Gritti, envoyé du sultan en Hongrie, pour régler le conflit pour la possession du trône de Hongrie entre Ferdinand de Habsbourg et Jean Ier Szapolyai. Lundovico Gritti tente alors une prise de pouvoir en Transylvanie, et provoque un soulèvement général. Petru Rares soutient Istvan Maylad, le voïvode de Transylvanie, qui s'est assuré de l'appui de Ferdinand de Habsbourg, à la tête d'une armée de Sicules et de Saxons contre Ludovico Gritti, qui est tué. Il est finalement vaincu par une coalition de Polonais, de Turcs et de Tatars de Crimée, et doit se réfugier à Ciceu, dans sa forteresse de Transylvanie, après l'incendie de la capitale Iassy.Il est alors chassé du trône le 18 septembre 1538. Rétabli en février 1541 avec l'accord des turcs, après la mort d'Alexandru III Cornea il meurt le 3 septembre 1546.


Note for:   Jovan Brankovic,    - 1502         Index
Individual note:   despot of Sebia in 1493–1502