Note for:   James Victor Jim Southern,   10 NOV 1957 -          Index
Individual note:   études spécialisées en histoire internationale des mouvemnents sociaux ouvriers


Note for:   Hirsh (Grégoire - Gregorievitch) Masur,   1837 - 1916         Index
Individual note:   Comptable
études : Ecole de commerce.
Expert comptable pour une usine textile.
installé à Mitau (Yelgava) LETTONIE (LATVIA).
Après la mort de sa femme (1915), lors d'un pogrom, il fut déplacé par le régime tsariste à Koslow en Bielorussie où il décéda à 79 ans. Il y fut accompagné par sa fille Polina, son gendre Konrad Zinaburg et leurs enfants.


Note for:   Myriam Rochel Finkelstein,   (1840) - 1915         Index
Individual note:   Finkelshteyns ?
Finkielsztein ?
Funkelstein ?
Origine Riga et Kudilga
Farblejher ?


Note for:   Markus Marcus Masur,   1798 - 1882         Index
Individual note:   Inscrit au registre des famille juives de la ville de Goldingen (Kuldiga) en Lettonie.
Profession : Tailleur (de vêtements)
Atelier à Riga (Lettonie) dans le faubourg dit de "Moscou" pendant la Tutelle Russe.


Note for:   David Masur,   (1767) -          Index
Individual note:   Famille Juive, sans usage de nom de famille avant 1800.
Origine probable : Lithuanie ou Pologne (Mazurie d'ex.Prusse-Orientale)
Descendants de Khazars ? (Khazaks) d'Ukraine ou mer Noire ?

En 1561, immigration des premiers juifs en Lettonie, intensification vers 1648 en raison des pogroms kosacks en Ukraine. Mouvement migratoire vers le Nord-Est pour cause de survie politique ou économique ?

La famille Masur réside en Lettonie qui est tour à tour sous tutelle de seigneuries germaniques et de l'empire Russe.

".... Jews started to settle in the present territory of Latvia after 1561, when Latgale, in Eastern Latvia, fell under Polish rule, which continued for 200 years. Daugavpils (Dinaburg, Dvinsk), Rezekne (Rositten, Rezhitsa), Ludza (Lutsyn), and other townships (shtetl) in Latgale, such as Kraslava (Kreslawka), Balvi, and Preili, became centers of settlement for Jewish artisans and traders. Settlement intensified after 1648, when many Jews settled here after fleeing the Cossack hordes of Borden Khmelnitsky, who conducted massacres in the southern regions of Volhynia and Podolia (Ukraine).

The first place of settlement for Jews in Kurland (Courland), in Western Latvia, was the district of Piltene, which for a time was subject directly to the king of Poland. Jewish settlers came from Lithuania and Prussia. In the Duchy of Kurland itself, conditions for Jews were much harsher, but Jewish communities formed in Mitau (Jelgava), Goldingen (Kuldiga) , Aizpute (Hasenpoth), Tukums, Bauska, and elsewhere.

In the eighteenth century, the entire region of present-day Latvia became part of the Tsarist Empire. Kurland and Latgale fell in the "Pale of Settlement." The tsars sought to keep Jews apart from the main bulk of the population, and so restricted Jewish residence to certain "gubernias" or provinces, in the western part of the empire. Even within the Pale of Settlement, as this area was called, Jews could not buy land, were barred from certain professions, and so on. In the mid-nineteenth century the first Jews who engaged in trade in Riga, the capital of the gubernia of Livland (Vidzeme), formally registered as residents of Sloka (Schlock). In this little town and its environs, there were no restrictions on members of the Mosaic faith. Later, Jews were permitted to settle in Riga itself, mainly in the district to the southeast of the old city, the Moskauer Vorstadt (Moscow suburb)."


Note for:   Leah ( Leeh ) ( Leie ) Unknown (x) Mazur David,   (1798) -          Index
Individual note:   Juive
origine inconnue, Poland ?


Note for:   Etta Ette Yetta Masur,   1877 - 1942         Index
Individual note:   (Voir la fiche de son mari)
Puis :
Sept 1941 = Coincée dans le grand Ghetto de Riga par les Nazis, avec sa fille Adèle âgée de 27 ans, plus son frère Alexandre et son épouse Sarah.
Puis, le 30 novembre, les Nazis ont liquidé le ghetto.(Plan du SS Brigadeführer Stahleker, avec le Letton Viktors Arajs)
Massacres dans les forêts proches (Rumbula) , déportations, assassinats, ....
(Nuit et brouillard, ... y compris pour les enfants.)
Sa fille Adèle s'en est sortie vivante et a émigré aux USA.


Holocaust extermination of 75.000 Latvian Jews and several thousand Jews from Western Europe, Lithuania and Hungary) together with "politically undesirable elements" (12.000 - 15.000 victims) helped by Latvian extreme nationalists. Nazis exploited their readiness to violence to engage nationalist activists in the Jews' termination program.

Two time periods should be clearly distinguished in the history of extermination of the Latvian Jews. The first period covers the summer of 1941, with massive killings of Jews in the rural areas and selected killings of male Jews in the cities (in Riga alone at least 5.000 victims; around 35.000 victims in Latvia, as of October 15, 1941). The extermination of the Jews in this phase is not yet strictly centralized, the commandos of the Security Police and carry out individual bigger actions on their own responsibility (in Jelgava, Riga, Daugavpils, Rezekne etc.). A significant role was played by the anti-Jewish atives undertaken by the Kommandanturs of Wehrmacht. The largest number murders was committed by a local volunteer killing unit (the Arajs commando). Occasionally the execution campaigns were assisted by the Wehrmacht, German marines (in Liepaja), and individual sub-units of the 9th, 13th, and other police battalions. There is no evidence to the frequently-heard assertion that the annihilation of Jews in Latvia was already under way before the german invasion. However, there is no denying that without the complicity of local units of self-defence (later, auxiliary police) in the actions against the jews, the rural areas of Latvia would not have been "cleansed" as rapidly and as thoroughly as they were, nor would it have been possible to carry out the massive imprisionment actions in the cities on such a big scale.

The second period of the total ethnocide began in November - December, 1941. The elimination of Jews by now had become strictly centralized, led and overseen by the Higher SS and Police Leader in Ostland in accordance with the instructions from Berlin. There was no place anymore for "local initiatives", the participation of the Latvian police and Schutzmannschaft in the massacres was held under a strong German control. By the end of December, 1941 the "final solution" for Latvia was practically achieved: out of the total of 75.000 Jews living in Latvia before the occupation only some 6.000 persons had escaped death, mainly in the "Small ghetto" of Riga and in small camps in Liepaja and Daugavpils. When the transfer of the surviving Jews to the "Kaiserwald-Riga" concentration camp was completed in autumn, 1943, their number had further decreased by 1.500. In a year, when they were deported to the concentration camps in Germany, no more than 4.000 persons had remained. Out of these only the fourth part survived the war. Only some 350 Jews were saved in Latvia by the non-Jewish nationals.

D'après Margers Vestermanis,
Director of the "'Jews in Latvia" Museum/Documentation Center.